Broker trader lawyer spy pdf
Industrial espionageeconomic espionagecorporate spying or corporate espionage is a broker trader lawyer spy pdf of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security. With its roots in market research"competitive intelligence" has been described as the "application of principles and practices from military and national intelligence to the domain of global business";  it is the business equivalent of open-source intelligence.
The difference between competitive intelligence and economic or industrial espionage is not clear; one needs to understand the legal basics to recognize how to draw the line between the two. Economic or industrial espionage takes place in two main forms. In short, the purpose of espionage is to gather knowledge about an organization s. It may include the acquisition of intellectual propertysuch as information on industrial manufacture, ideas, techniques and broker trader lawyer spy pdf, recipes and formulas.
Or it could include sequestration of proprietary or operational information, such as that on customer datasets, pricing, sales, marketing, research and development, policies, prospective bids, planning or marketing strategies or the changing compositions and locations of production. As well as orchestrating espionage on commercial organizations, governments can also be targets — for example, to determine the terms of a tender for a government contract so that another tenderer.
Economic and industrial espionage is most commonly associated with technology-heavy industries, including computer software and hardware, biotechnologyaerospacetelecommunicationstransportation and engine technology, automobilesmachine broker trader lawyer spy pdfenergymaterials and coatings and so on. Silicon Valley is known to be one of the world's most targeted areas for espionage, though any industry with information of use to competitors may be a target.
Information can make the difference between success and failure; if a trade secret is stolen, the competitive playing field is leveled or even tipped in favor of a competitor. Although a lot of information-gathering is accomplished legally through competitive intelligence, at times corporations feel the best way to get information is to take it. In recent broker trader lawyer spy pdf, economic or industrial espionage has taken on an expanded definition.
For instance, attempts broker trader lawyer spy pdf sabotage a corporation may be considered industrial espionage; in this sense, the term takes on the wider connotations of its parent word. That espionage and sabotage corporate or otherwise have become more clearly associated with each other is also demonstrated by broker trader lawyer spy pdf number of profiling studies, some government, some corporate. The United States government currently has a polygraph examination entitled the "Test of Espionage and Sabotage" TEScontributing to the increasingly popular, broker trader lawyer spy pdf not consensus, notion, by those studying espionage and sabotage countermeasures, of the interrelationship between the two.
Economic or industrial espionage commonly occurs in one of two ways. Firstly, a dissatisfied broker trader lawyer spy pdf appropriates information to advance interests or to damage broker trader lawyer spy pdf company. Secondly, a competitor or foreign government seeks information to advance its own technological or financial interest. A patsy may be initially asked to hand over inconsequential information and, once compromised by committing a crime, bribed into handing over more sensitive material.
A spy may break into the premises to steal data and may search through waste paper and refuse, known as "dumpster diving". Outsourced industrial producers may ask for information outside the agreed-upon contract. Computers have facilitated the process of collecting information because of the ease of access to large amounts of information through physical contact or the Internet.
Computers have become key in exercising industrial espionage due to the enormous amount of information they contain and its ease of being copied and transmitted. The use of computers for espionage increased rapidly in the s. Information has been commonly stolen by being copied from unattended computers in offices, those gaining unsupervised access doing so through subsidiary jobs, such as cleaners or repairmen. Laptops were, and still are, a prime target, with broker trader lawyer spy pdf traveling abroad on business being warned not to leave them for any period of time.
Perpetrators of espionage have been known to find many ways of conning unsuspecting individuals into parting, often only temporarily, from their possessions, enabling others to access and steal information. Information may be stolen in transit, in taxisat airport baggage counters, baggage carouselson trains and so on. The rise of the internet and computer networks has expanded the range and detail of information available and the ease of access for the purpose of industrial espionage.
Sensitive military or defense engineering or other industrial information may not have immediate monetary value to criminals, compared with, say, bank details. Analysis of cyberattacks suggests deep knowledge of broker trader lawyer spy pdf, with targeted attacks, obtained by numerous individuals operating in a sustained organized way.
The rising use of the internet has also extended opportunities for industrial espionage with the aim of sabotage. In broker trader lawyer spy pdf early s, it was noticed that energy companies were increasingly coming under attack from hackers. Energy power systems, doing jobs like monitoring power grids or water flow, once isolated from the other computer networks, were now being connected to the internet, leaving them more vulnerable, having historically few built-in security features. One of the means of perpetrators conducting industrial espionage is by exploiting vulnerabilities in computer software.
Malware and spyware as "a tool for industrial espionage", in "transmitting digital copies of trade secrets, customer plans, future plans and contacts". Newer broker trader lawyer spy pdf of malware include devices which surreptitiously switch on mobile phones camera broker trader lawyer spy pdf recording devices.
In attempts to tackle such attacks on their intellectual property, companies are increasingly broker trader lawyer spy pdf important information off network, leaving an "air gap", with some companies building "Faraday cages" to shield from electromagnetic or cellphone transmissions. The distributed denial of service DDoS attack uses compromised computer systems to orchestrate a flood of requests on the target system, causing it to shut down and deny service to other users.
This method was allegedly utilized by Russian secret services, over a period of two weeks on a broker trader lawyer spy pdf on Estonia in Mayin response to the removal of a Soviet era war memorial. Economic and industrial espionage has a long history. The work of Father Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles in Jingdezhen, China to reveal to Europe the manufacturing methods of Chinese porcelain in is sometimes considered an early case of industrial espionage.
Historical accounts have been written of industrial espionage between Britain and France. East-West broker trader lawyer spy pdf development opportunities after World War I saw a rise in Soviet interest in American and European manufacturing know-how, exploited by Amtorg Corporation. One such operation, known as broker trader lawyer spy pdf Brunnhilde" operated from the mids until early and made use of spies from many Communist Bloc countries. Through at least 20 forays, many western European industrial secrets were compromised.
Writing in the Bulletin of the Atomic ScientistsPhilip Hanson detailed a spetsinformatsiya system in which 12 industrial branch ministries formulated requests for information to aid technological development in their military programs. Acquisition plans were described as operating on 2 year and 5 year cycles with about tasks under way each year. Efforts were aimed at civilian as well as military industrial targets, such as in the petrochemical industries.
Some information was garnered so as to compare levels of competitor to Soviet technological advancement. Much unclassified information was also gathered, blurring the boundary with "competitive intelligence". The Soviet military was recognised as making much better use of acquired information, compared to civilian industry, where their record in replicating and developing industrial technology was poor. Following the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold Warcommentators, including the US Congressional Intelligence Committee, noted a redirection amongst the espionage community from military to industrial targets, with Western and former communist countries making use of "underemployed" spies broker trader lawyer spy pdf expanding programs directed at stealing such information.
The legacy of Cold War spying included not just the redirection of personnel but the use of spying apparatus such as computer databases, scanners for eavesdroppingspy satellitesbugs and wires. Incar manufacturer Opelthe German division broker trader lawyer spy pdf General Motorsaccused Volkswagen of industrial espionage after Opel's chief of production, Jose Ignacio Lopez, and seven other executives moved to Volkswagen.
In April the US based hospitality company Starwood accused its rival Hilton of a "massive" case of industrial espionage. After being purchased by private equity group BlackstoneHilton employed 10 managers and executives from Starwood.
Under intense pressure to improve profits, [ clarification needed ] Starwood accused Hilton of stealing corporate information relating to its luxury brand concepts, used in setting up its own Denizen hotels. Specifically, former head of its luxury brands group, Ron Klein, was accused of downloading "truckloads of documents" from a laptop to his personal email account. GhostNet was a "vast surveillance system" reported by Canadian researchers based at the University of Toronto in March Using targeted emails it compromised thousands of computers in broker trader lawyer spy pdf organisations, enabling attackers to scan for information and transfer this back to a "digital storage facility in China".
On 13 JanuaryGoogle announced that operators, from within China, had hacked into their Google China operation, stealing intellectual property and, in particular, accessing the email accounts of human rights activists.
There was speculation that "insiders" had been involved in the attack, with some Google China employees being denied access to the company's internal networks after the company's announcement. National Security Agency claimed that the attacks broker trader lawyer spy pdf Google probably originated from two Chinese universities associated with expertise in computer science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the Shandong Lanxiang Vocational Schoolthe latter having close links to the Chinese military.
Google claimed at least 20 other companies had also been targeted in the cyber attack, said by the London Timesto have been part of an "ambitious and sophisticated attempt to steal secrets from unwitting corporate victims" including "defence contractors, finance and technology companies". In March Google subsequently decided to cease offering censored results in China, leading to the closing of its Chinese operation. The US based firm CyberSitter announced in January that it was suing the Chinese government, and other US companies, for stealing its anti pornography software, with the accusation that it had been incorporated into China's Green Dam program, used by the state to censor children's internet access.
CyberSitter accused Green Dam creators as having copied around lines of code. They were described as having done 'a sloppy job of copying,' with some lines of the copied code continuing to direct people to the CyberSitter website. The attorney acting for CyberSitter maintained "I don't think I have ever seen such clear-cut stealing". A jury acquitted the defendants of the charges with regard to TSMC and deadlocked on the charges with regard to NetLogic.
In Maya federal judge dismissed all the espionage charges against the two defendants. The judge ruled that the U. Government presented no evidence of broker trader lawyer spy pdf. In Maybroker trader lawyer spy pdf federal jury convicted Chordiant Software, Inc.
Yue previously filed lawsuits against Symantec Corporation for a similar theft. A broker trader lawyer spy pdf report to the US government, by aerospace and defense company Northrop Grummandescribes Chinese economic espionage as comprising "the single greatest threat to U.
This would involve allowing both states to take the measures they deem necessary for their self-defense while simultaneously agreeing to refrain from taking offensive steps; it would also entail vetting these commitments.
In Decemberit was revealed that Jonathan Evans, head of the United Kingdom 's MI5had sent out confidential letters to chief executives and security chiefs at the country's banks, accountants and legal firms warning of attacks from Chinese 'state organisations'.
They contain IP addresses, mobile phone numbers and email accounts with the BND surveillance system containing hundreds of thousands and possibly more than a million such targets.
The BND's project group charged with supporting the NSA investigative committee in German parliament set up in springreviewed the selectors and discovered 40, suspicious search parameters, including espionage targets in Western European governments and numerous companies. The group also confirmed suspicions that the NSA had systematically violated German interests and concluded that the Americans could have perpetrated economic espionage directly under the Germans' noses. From Wikipedia, broker trader lawyer spy pdf free encyclopedia.
Cyber-spying grows bigger and more boring". Retrieved 25 May The Story of Amtorg". Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 23 October US Department of Energy: Which countries are we spying on? Retrieved 1 December Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 4 January Die Chronologie des Spionageskandals — Politik — Tagesspiegel". Sonderermittler spricht von klarem Vertragsbruch der NSA". Barry, Marc; Penenberg, Adam L Espionage in Corporate America.